1 Photography is all about light, or lack of light. A photographer delights in light, as an essential raw ingredient in picture making.
Dramatic lighting effects can be enhanced with the filters and tools that many photo editing apps include. In this image the contrast was increased, and a texture layer added.
2 The important aspects of this photograph are the expression of the sitter, with his tilted head, and the subdued colour, with the background greens being echoed in the hoody that he is wearing. The drama of the shot is enhanced by the strong areas of light and dark in the image.
3 Colour, or lack of colour, is a vital aspect of photography. Whether to enhance or saturate the colour, or desaturate an image, even perhaps decide that a photograph will look better in black and white. In the old days the photographer would have to change film stock and take another photograph, now we have the possibility of taking a photograph and making as many versions of it as we please.
There are many apps that reproduce the effect of old cameras and old film, such as Hipstermatic and Instagram. This image has a sepia toned feel to it, while keeping a little more colour than a monotone. The old photograph effect is enhanced by the antique subject matter of the image.
4 The composition of an image is as important as it’s content in the creation of a pleasing image. There are often ways in which the two come together to create an image, with the content itself framing shot.
This photograph is literally framed by the ornate frame of the mirror. Many apps include tools to add readymade frame effects to images, reproducing the look and feel of old and tattered photographs, polaroid shots, or the sprockets of film, but it is often more satisfying to create one’s own frames.
5 In this image it is the splash of light reflecting in the puddles that creates the interest in the shot, lifting the foreground out of the darkness.
6 There is a saying - ‘the best camera is the one that you have with you’ - and these days, more often that not, the camera will be built into your phone - this is the power of the smart phone, and the reason behind the extraordinary explosion in creative photography that we are currently seeing.
For me the smartphone is still not enough - I would like to have the ability to capture the image that I am seeing with my eye instantaneously - in a blink, but until that technology is available to me, I do what photographers have done since the invention of the 35mm camera - I set up a shot, and wait of the moment. As I walk around I am forever looking for the shot, keeping in mind an imaginary view finder. Often the shot that captures the moment is pure luck - serendipity, but as often it is because we are open and looking for the moment - this is why photographers that famously ‘capture the moment’ such as Henri Cartier Bresson and Eliot Erwitt were so successful.
Waiting for a train is a perfect opportunity to set up a shot, with the disappearing perspective of the tracks on one side of the image in this case balancing the couple on the right. I could hide behind the fact that I was looking at a phone - as they are - to wait for the moment in which to click the shutter. If you want to be even more sneaky, you can use the switch on the headphone to release the shutter.
7 So often we take photographs from more or less the place that our heads and eyes are in, a few feet above the ground, and pretty much straight on. It is a great idea to change this perspective as often as possible, taking shots above, below, high, low, through, around... The iPhone makes this all the easier, as you can shoot from the hip, pointing the camera in any way you want, without even looking at the display.
In this image the camera is pointing almost directly upwards. It is fun sometimes to go for a photo-taking walk, snapping photos with the camera always parallel to the ground, so that images are either taken directly upwards, or directly downwards.
8 Silhouettes are always very dramatic and effective. It is possible to achieve wonderful silhouettes by photographing into bright light, with no post processing, but also possible to create silhouettes after a photo has been taking, using apps like ‘Noir’ or ‘Dramatic B&W’ There is even an app called Silhouetter. Silhouettes can be archetypal images, reminiscent of fairy tale, magic and myth.
This wide panorama is a combination of two photographs combined in a painting app. The colour has been saturated slightly, and the contrast increased so that the blacks are really black.
9 Mirrors, and reflections in windows make for very exciting, multi-layered images.
In this shot the barman seems to be turning to talk, perhaps to the two men who are reflected in the mirror above his head.
10 The leaf in this image glows strongly against the black/blue of the background, which acts to intensify the strong green of the leaf. The bright light on the leaf appears all the brighter because of the dark background, as on a day of sunshine and dark rain clouds, when everything seems Crystal clear.
11 There are many apps that can create dramatic lighting effects, adding spotlights or strong vignettes. This image was taken with one such app, called Hipstermatic.
12 One of the amazing things about the iPhone and iPhonography is apps - and not just the photography apps, but the possibility of blurring the boundaries between photography and art, by using layered images, montage, painting, colour, and pushing both imagery and apps to the limit.
This image has been simplified using Hipstermatic, an app that creates a whole variety of antique camera effects. These cameras are collectively called ‘Toy Cameras’, and many of them either try to recreate the look and feel of old cameras, or old film processes.
13 A photograph does not necessarily need to be of something, often an abstract shape can catch the eye, such as this image of road markings, where the line of the white square is carried over onto the tip of the line.
14 The top half of this image has been blurred, so that the eye concentrates on the curtain of water, with the background disappearing back into the distance.
15 In this image the contrast has been taken right up, the colour saturated, and a spotlight tool has been used to highlight the centre of the image. As there was some unwanted detail in the window, the image was also edited in a painting app, and two versions of the image combined, to give more control over the intensity of the light and dark in different areas of the image.
16 ￼Sometimes the creativity can happen before the photo is taken. This image was achieved by projecting an image of a Bridget Riley painting onto the subject. The photo was then turned into a monotone using a standard photo app.
17 ￼This image has been simplified using a filter that takes blocks of colour and unifies the pixels in that block to give a painterly effect. Various apps have these filters, and there are also apps that specifically create painterly effects such as Hipstermatic, Instagram and Painteresque. The strip of grey at the top of the image helps to balance the composition.
18 It is stunning how close up the iPhone camera will focus. This image was taken without any additional lens.
19 Although the image is almost entirely taken up with foliage, which, on it’s own, would be very boring, the subject of the photograph is the woman in the background, who is looking directly at the camera, and hence the viewer. The contrast between the bright green of the leaves and the black of doorway helps to create a dynamic composition.
20 The fact that most of the mini-scootering child has already left the frame adds intrigue to this image, his great presence suggested by the shadow that he casts.
21 The effectiveness of this image comes from it’s low point of view, with almost the whole frame of the image above the horizon line. The camera was sitting on the ground, but also pointing up slightly. The perspective adds a sense of the uncanny to an image who’s subject is also rather uncanny.
22 It can be very effective to find a ‘bugs eye’ view, placing the phone on the ground, with the camera as low as possible. With the wide angle of the iPhone’s camera, it is amazing how much of the image remains in sharp focus.
23 It can be quite difficult shooting directly into the sun as the light reflects on the camera’s lenses, but it can also be very rewarding. There are even apps that reproduce the effect of rays of light and lens flare.
The pose of the figure in this photograph, the way in which she is shading her eyes from the strong morning sunlight, gives the image a story.
24 In bright sunlight, it is really fun to look into shop windows, capturing images both in and through the window. This manikin seems to lean towards the photographer.
25 In this image the blur was created by spinning the camera sharply as the shutter was released.
26 A figure in an image immediately draws the eye, and it is often better to place this figure at an extreme edge of the shot, rather than in the centre.
27 There is beauty everywhere. This photograph was taken through a wire fence in a parking lot behind a hotel in South London. If I had pointed the camera in another direction, it would have been a totally different image - dumpsters, litter, discarded shopping trollies and fast food outlets.
28 This image is actually two photographs, albeit taken in very quick succession. One image was taken parallel to the horizon, while in the other the camera is tilted up into the sky. The close up image of the near gull helps to create a sense of depth in the image.
29 It is not just sunlight that creates ray and halo effects, the bright lights of a concert are equally effective. This composition might have been boring, but for the one set of raised arms, which adds a point of interest.
30 This complex image is a fast moving fairground ride, painted with a union jack. As the photograph was taken at night, the shutter speed is slow, but the camera was supported so that there is just enough sharpness in the image to add definition to the shot.
31 It is sometimes very effective to take an image right back to a pure black and white by increasing the contrast of the image as much as possible. Some apps include a threshold slider, which gives you a lot of control over the precise tonal balance of the image.
33 It is sometimes necessary to lie on the ground to take a photograph. One gets a very different view of the world with a low camera angle.
34 Colour can be about an absence of colour, as in this ‘nocturne’ in a mono-tonal blue.The coolness of the colour compliments the subject of the image. The way in which the image is cropped also adds to it’s effectiveness, with a flattening effect at the top of the image, and the three dimensionality of the white space at the bottom of the image, which makes the foot appear almost to come forward, out of the picture plane.
35 It is sometimes more interesting to cut figures in half, than to photograph them whole. The fact that these two sunbathers have been cropped compliments the fact that the dog’s head is hidden by the hat. The large area of sand in the lower two thirds of the image gives the effect of a very high angle shot - a seagull’s eye view.
36 This photograph is a combination of two images, one of the sculpture, and the other of a colourful lino floor in the cafe where the statue was standing. By using an app with layers, and choosing an appropriate blending option, the two images were blended together. The centre of the statue was masked to control the effect and add focus to the centre of the subject.
37 The poster of Marilyn Monroe behind cheap crockery in a dime store creates an interesting juxtaposition.
38 ￼It can make a great shot to fill the whole frame, as in this photograph of barn doors, so that there is a uniformity of texture across the image.
39 Sometimes the juxtaposition of elements that catches the eye is a very simple idea, as in this photo, where the colour and texture of the dog’s coat matches the fur coats on the rack.
40 All the diagonal lines in this image lead the eye back into the picture, and the solid black hills make the sunset all the more dramatic.
41 This photograph is all about texture, with all the different lichens like a patchwork quilt. The form of the fissure in the rock leads the eye to the central area, where the bright red of the flowers show up starkly against the black gap in the stone wall.
42 This spidery image was taken against the black of a garage door on a cold winter day.
43 This is a straight photograph that has not been altered at all, but reproduces a blurred effect in the condensation of a bathroom the mirror.
44 Taken into bright sun, there might have been lens flare all over this photograph but for the fact that the photographer has hidden the sun behind one of the leaves, to take advantage the halo effect on the leaves.
45 Always keep an eye out for the absurd, the story behind an image. This photograph was taken in the storeroom behind a museum, where a priceless sculpture has been carefully wrapped to protect it from knocks, thereby creating another, wholly un-intended piece.
46 This image would not be nearly as effective if the girl were not looking directly at the camera.
47 It is sometimes good to take images that are not as one might expect, like this photo of a sunset, but with none of the usual bright colour. Although it is taken directly into the sun, the high contrast and and simplicity of the blocks of light and dark capture this misty landscape.
48 The whole of this image has been enhanced, with saturated colour and a sharpening of the image. Many photo apps include a filter to achieve effects like this, such as the ‘Drama’ filter in ‘Snapseed’, and there are also apps such as Dynamic Light, which are specifically designed to create these effects.
49 A soft focus can be very effective to create mood in an image. There is a strong story in this photograph, with the girl looking off into the distance, lost in her own thoughts.
50 Although the iPhone has an excellent wide angle lens, it is possible to take super wide panoramas, and even 360 degree images using various apps.
This dramatic shot of the Basilica of Sacre-Coeur in the Montmartre quarter of Paris is created by the dramatic artificial lighting of the church. A shot like this may well need a slow shutter setting, making it very important to support the camera to prevent the blurring caused by camera movement.
51 This image is taken from a very high angle, almost above the subject, which makes for an odd and interesting shot.
52 You can see in this image that there is some overlapping of the individual images that the camera has captured as it has been moved from left to right, up and down, but this blurring adds to the final effect of the photo.
53 It is the framing of the umbrella that makes this image effective, the fact that the colour fills the entire frame. The lines of the umbrella’s ribs draw the eye to the woman’s joyful face and outrageous sunglasses.
54 Some apps create extreme effects, such as this one, called 3D Photo. It can create a whole variety of weird and wonderful geometric effects.
55 ￼In this image the background has been blurred with a finger, using the smudge tool in a painting app called Procreate, although most painting apps will have a smudge brush.
56 There are a number of apps that create cartoon like effects, by simplifying colours, and adding contrast to edges. Paper Camera and Cartoontastic and Toonpaint are three apps specifically designed to do this.
57 There are a number of apps that create cartoon like effects, by simplifying colours, and adding contrast to edges. Paper Camera and Cartoontastic and Toonpaint are three apps specifically designed to do this.
58 The background in this still life has been blurred with a finger using an app called ProCreate, which has a particularly good smudge tool. More control over the process can be gained if the image is transferred to an iPad.
59 This image was altered using an app called Snapseed, which has a wonderful filter that adds drama to an image by decreasing the saturation and adding contrast and detail. In this case the image was run through the same filter many times, to give an extreme effect, before the addition of grain, and a liner blur on the edges of the image.
60 ￼This image is a simple blend of two photographs. both have been desaturated, and then layered, with control over the way in which the one image shows through the other. It is possible to create these effects in various painting apps, or in specialist photography apps such as Blender.
61 Another set of apps add image layers to photographs, to create lighting and other graphic effects. This image was created in an app called WowFX. Many photography apps will have a selection of built in layer effects.
62 There are various blur effects that can be used, radial, liner, selective and textured. There are apps that specialise in creating blur effects, such as BlurFX and Tilt Shift Gen, but most photography apps will have a blur filter or tilt shift emulator.
Most of this image has been blurred with a radial blur, leaving only the centre of the image in full focus, picking out the guitar case. Many photo apps include blur tools, but there are also apps such as ‘BlurFX’ that are designed specifically to create these effects, giving a lot of control over the specific area to be blurred by including masking tools.
63 In this simple, understated still life the effect of the radial blur is to accentuate the subject, which is further enhanced by the fact that most of the colour, light and detail is focused in the centre of the image.
64 This image has been altered in various apps, separating the background from the foreground by using saturation and desaturation. There are apps that are specifically designed to do this, such as ‘Coloursplash’. A radial blur has been added to enhance focus on the subject, and also suggest the movement of the dancers.
65 In this simple still life the sharpness of the flowers has been accentuated by adding a blur to the background, replicating the effect that the macro lens of an SLR camera might give, although in this case there is a texture to the blur which would not be the case with a straight unaltered photograph.
66 This image has been processed in a number of different apps, the colour has been saturated, and there is an overlay of colour in the image, magenta at the top right, and yellow at the bottom left. A blur has also been added to the edges of the image which increases the effect of the perspective and gives the picture overall an unrealistic or surrealistic feel, like a dream image, as in a Tim Burton movie. The town becomes a little like a toy town.
67 This is an extreme use of blur, where the foreground and background have been completely separated. Although the image presents sharply focussed objects in the foreground, the figurative element provides the narrative - the cafe, conversation, wine, etc. This image is not really a still life, as the inclusion of a figure immediately adds the possibility of a story.
68 The high angle of this photograph seems to distort the perspective, with the fruit bowl almost totally round, as if it was photographed from above, while the jug of flowers is seen more from a sideways angle. This composition has been a favourite with still life painters, tipping the plane of the foreground towards the plane of the picture.
69 In this image the colour has been saturated to make the most of the reds theme. If you squint your eyes, the image might almost be an abstract, with the lines of red yellow and white, and the bright red square of the suitcase.
70 There was a certain serendipity in this image, in that the combination of differing greys and ochres happened by chance, but looking at the image, I enjoyed the patterns in the grid of the railing, the bands in the girl’s dress, and the repetition of the ochre colour in the paving slabs, shoe, and light. The image is also composed with strong verticals and horizontals.
71 Effective photographs are all about composition - looking at the display on the camera, and composing a balanced image that is pleasing to the eye. Some purist photographers will print their images with no cropping, exactly true to the image that has been created in the camera, but with apps on the iphone, reality can be enhanced and manipulated in all sorts of ways these days. This simple strong image is like a geometrical abstract painting, with it’s bold diagonals, repeating circles and strong simple colour. The image is virtually cut in half by the band of white across the centre. It is only the neon lettering that gives it a context. I got into trouble taking this photo, as it was in an airport - security was soon tapping on my shoulder...
72 Almost all this shot is foreground, with the prints spilling out across the table, yet the eye is immediately drawn to the artist who is the subject of the image. The perspective of the image leads the eye backwards, and the use of blur in the top left of the picture focuses the eye on the artists hands.
73 It can give a very surrealistic feel to put an object - in this case the eggshell of a hatched bird - right in the foreground of an image. The amazing depth of field that the iPhone’s wide angle lens has means that most of the lower part of the image is in acceptable focus. To get this ‘worm’s eye view’ I had the camera resting on the ground, nestling in the grass.
74 The two bottles frame the subject in this image, adding context to the story that is being told. The woman is obviously responding to someone off to the right of the image.
75 The fact that nearly half of this image is plain white emphasises the idea of the subject - an action painter setting about the creation of a new canvas. The plainness of the lower part of the image compliments the busyness in the upper part of the image, and the busyness of the painter, which is enhanced by the motion blur of her hand.
76 The story in this image is partly created by it’s dramatic cropping. The man and the cat in the cloisters - what happens next? Although traditional images have a given proportion, be it 2x3, 4x6, 10x8 etc., it is sometimes interesting to create a very different format, perhaps even one that is not rectangular.
77 This is an image of strong diagonals - the subject is really only about pattern, colour was not relevant, so I desaturated the image to make the composition all the stronger.
78 This photo has a very strong cross shaped composition, with the horizontal of the hillside and vertical of the dark tree. The effect is enhanced by the fact that bright sun falls on the hillside, while the sky is cloudy, and the tree is in deep shadow. It is possible in some apps to selectively alter the lightness and darkness in areas of an image, a process known in traditional photograph printing as dodging (lightening) and burning (darkening).
79 Mirrors often create interesting photographs, as the reflected image becomes instantly autobiographical. Shop displays are a great source for shots like this.
80 Doorways are another great way to frame a shot, as they create a natural frame, and a natural story. If you watch films, you will notice how often actors are directed to stop in doorways, to deliver a set of lines before entering or departing.
81 The very simple composition in this landscape is balanced by the various elements in it’s composition, with the heavier clump of trees on the right complimenting the tiny figures on the left, which automatically draw the eye.
82 The framing created by this doorway is extreme, with the bright walls washed white with light and the room behind darker, tinged blue with the natural light coming in thorough the windows. It is possible to play with the what is called the white balance of a shot, to compensate for different lighting - natural or man made, and often interesting to mix different coloured light in a single shot.
83 This image is all about framing, with the wall to the right complimenting and balancing the very strong diagonal of the stairway. The image has been taken processed to create old film effects, in this case using the apps Snapseeds and Instagram, although there are many alternatives.
84 There are many apps that reproduce old camera and old film effects, giving the vignette (darkening of the edges) that poor quality lenses give, or an overlay of scratches, dust and other damage that old photographs might accrue with age. The generic term for these apps is Toy Camera apps, although many photo editing apps will also have sets of filters that will create similar effects.
There are many apps that reproduce effects that early photography might have produced, with subdued colours, blurry detail, and high contrast. The secret is to find imagery that compliments the effects that these apps produce.
85 This photograph was taken in very strong daylight, with the skull placed on a curving piece of plain white paper. The addition of grunge gives a painterly effect, and is reminiscent of classical vanitas painting.
86 The colour in this image has been subdued, and a strong vignette added. There is also a slight texture over the entire image, adding a grainy texture to the shot.
87 If the subject of an image is also old or a little spooky, grunge effects can add interest, creating a dreamy, half remembered, antique sort of effect.
88 Grunge can add drama and intrigue to an image, softening the detail, and bringing the focus of the image into the centre of the shot.
89 This image has been edited to an extreme, with subdued colour, and the addition of texture. The overall effect being enhanced by the fact that the camera was tilted forward and sideways so that the glass appears to be toppling.
90 This image has been processed with an extreme use of grunge (a texture layer over the image) and a blurred vignette around the image. The high angle of the camera helps to accentuate the effect.
91 This image appears to to have been blurred and ‘grunged’ but in fact it is a straight photograph, with the effects created by strong sunlight on a misty window.
92 This image has been edited to an extreme, using grunge effects, helped by the fact that the original photograph was taken into a mirror using a camera with a slow shutter, so that there was already motion blur in the image.
93 Sunsets are always great subjects for photographs, and they can be just as effective if they are subtle and understated. It is the reflection of the sky in the water that makes this image, adding a little detail in the middle distance.
94 Lighting can come from unexpected sources, as in this shot, where the plastic bottle has been discarded on a floor light, turning it from a bit of discarded rubbish into a sculptural statement.
95 Dramatic clouds are great to photograph, especially with the addition of a little foreground, to frame and anchor the shot.
96 This photo was taken through the windscreen of a car, with the headlamps providing the only light source.
97 The iphone has a great lens for getting up close to the subject, and if this is not enough, then there are additional macro, wide angle and telephoto lenses that can be bought, and clipped on to the phone.
The close up effect in this image has been enhanced by the addition of a radial blur, which adds as a vignette to the image, mimicking the very short depth of field that a macro lens on an SLR camera gives.
98 Went taking close up shots, it is vital to get the focus as sharp as possible, by holding the camera as still as possible and making sure that the main subject of the image is crystal clear.
99 ￼Capturing a moment is not only a glance, a gesture, a juxtaposition, it can also be the way light is falling, in this image reflecting from the road, colour reflected in the sky enhanced by the red of the traffic lights, the whites of the van and the signpost, the lamppost and road markings, giving perspective, form and symmetry to the image. I was on my way home from work, and the photograph opportunistically presented itself to me as I sat in my car, waiting for the lights to change.
100 ￼Often a shot can be enhanced by a juxtaposition of elements or ideas, such as in this image, where the word ‘Gorgeous’ on the bag seems to comment on the subject.
101 Many photographs have referenced themselves in their photographs with reflections or shadows. In this case the effect is enhanced by the way in which the shadow is framed by the light coming in through the window, and a suggestion of story that a sofa adds.
102 A photographer needs an eye for the chance juxtaposition, such as the three faces in this image, with the figure on the t-shirt apparently looking directly at the camera.
103 In some photographs the context can be as important as the image itself, and a caption is needed to explain the image. In this shot, the whole context changes when one knows that this field is part of a first world war battlefield near Ypres, ground on which many thousands of men lost their lives.
104 I really enjoy looking for interesting juxtapositions in photographs. Due to the way in which I have framed this self portrait it looks like the poster of a model in the window behind me is taking an interest in the photograph that I am taking. Reflections and mirrors can create wonderful effects in photographs.
105 I loved the symmetry in this image, the similarity in pose between the man in the wheelchair and the poster girl behind. After taking the photo I had a really good chat with the man, who was interested in the photographs that I was taking.
106 It is good fun to add lettering in an image, which acts like a caption or punchline.
107 Although this looks like a snapshot, I had to stand for quite a long time and take several photographs of passers by before I managed to get the image that I wanted.
108 A good photograph is often created by a combination of factors such as subject, composition, narrative, colour and light. Often a successful image happens almost by chance, although if one always has an eye for a photo, then the photographer can meet chance half way.
I was very pleased by the way in which the colour in this image tied it together, with the red on the flags echoed by the red writing on the car door, and the blue stripes on the plastic bag echoing the blue of the woman’s carrier bag. The fact that the woman is wearing the plastic back to protect her from the rain is the primary subject of the picture, but the symmetry of the colour helps create a unified whole.
109 As human beings we are programmed to respond to faces, and once one begins to see faces around you, there is no end to the possibilities. It is great fun to look for and capture letters and numbers as well.
110 This very wide angle photograph was created using an app called Panorama 360. The photograph is enhanced by the dramatic sunlight falling on the creamy limestone of the church.
111 In this image the focus on the subject has been enhanced by a radial blur, adding a slight effect of movement to the picture.
112 Taking portraits has always been of primary importance to photographers, attempting to capture the essence of their sitter. This can be done with lighting, through expression, or with the props and setting in which the photograph is taken. It is often vital to have the subject looking directly into the lens of the camera, and thus directly at the viewer of the photograph, but as with all rules, it is equally effective if the subject is looking away from the camera, out of shot, making the viewer wonder what is just beyond the frame of the picture.
In this image the girl takes a photograph of the photographer, with the lens of the camera pointing directly at the lens of the camera. She is looking directly at the viewer of the image by proxy, through the lens of her camera.
113 It is very important to this image that there is a point of light reflecting in eyes of the sitter, giving them a sparkle. The lighting in the photograph helps to focus the attention on the girl’s remarkable eyes.
114 This photo was taken in very low light but the blurring that the camera movement has created adds to the effectiveness of the image rather than detracting from it. The image is composed of a number of strong verticals and diagonals.
115 The blurry effect in this image was created partly by the distortions of the mirror it was photographed in, and partly with a slow shutter speed.
116 Self portraits are always fun. It looks like the woman in the poster is taking an interest in the photograph, posing for the photographer reflected in the shop window. To capture a wide range of tones, it is sometimes a good idea to shoot images with the automatic HDR option (high dynamic range) on the iPhone’s camera.
117 It is possible to use apps to create dramatic silhouettes, but also fun to find them without the help of an app, by shooting directly into the sun.
118 Various filters were used to increase the contrast of this image, and reduce it to a stark black and white. It was also edited slightly in a painting app, to erase some unwanted background detail.
119 Doorways often create opportunities for dramatic silhouettes, naturally reducing the range of colour in a shot and providing pleasing compositions.
120 This photograph was taken in the entrance to an art gallery, with people sheltering from a sudden downpour. It has been doctored in an app called ‘Noir’, which adds a vignette, intensities the contrast in the image, and reduces colour to a monotone.
121 It is often effective to shoot against a high contrast background, either white or black. This shot is in effect the reverse of a silhouette, with the strong profile of the sitter created by the black background against which the photo is taken.
122 Profiles are very effective, even if they are indistinct. This image has a very dreamy, painterly effect.
123 Although there is a certain about of movement blur and camera shake in this photograph, it adds to the overall effect, as the photo is obviously taken in the low lighting of a dance, and the blur captures the colourful, vibrant feeling of the dance floor.
124 It is possible to create all sorts of effects using a slow shutter speed on the iPhone, either by shooting in low light, or by using a specific app such as ‘Slow Shutter’. The camera is both a still capture and a moving image device, by using both of these cameras at the same time, some remarkable results can be achieved.
By holding the camera very still, there are some elements in this photo that remain in focus, while the primary subject - the swimmer - is blurred by her own fast movement.
125 There is a lot of movement in this shot, and nothing is really in focus, but it is effective none the less, helped by the fact that it is taken at a slightly odd angle. The camera was held tight against the wall of the tube station, to keep it as steady as possible, and the photograph was taking with a very slow shutter speed.
126 Moving water and fire are great subjects for slow shutter speeds. The movement blur of the water and figure in the background adds to the effectiveness of the shot.
127 This photo was taken using a very slow shutter speed, while motoring fast through a rain storm, with the camera resting on the dashboard. I have to add that I was a passenger, not the driver! It reminds me of a painting by JMW Turner called ‘Rain, Steam and Speed”.
128 There are apps such as Synthcam, which will combine a still image with an image taken with a slow shutter speed, so that it is possible to capture a sharp-ish central image simultaneously with a blurred background image.
129 Often it is good if the subject of an image is in sharp focus, and the surrounding either less focussed, or even purposely blurred. This image is the exact opposite, with the primary subject - which is a self portrait, blurred by movement, while the rest of the image is in focus. It was taken using a slow shutter setting with an app called ‘Slow Shutter’ and purposely moving while the image was being captured. Turning the photograph to black and white helps to simplify what might otherwise be a very complex image.
130 This photo was taken with a slow shutter app, with the phone resting and held tightly against the railing of the staircase.
131 It can be very difficult to take an effective photograph though the window of an airplane as the windows are so small, and often very cloudy. This image is really about the lens flare created by the sun. The image has been enhanced with a filter that has increased the contrast in the image.
132 The lens flare in this image adds to the composition, and balances the clumps of flowers in the foreground. It is very effective, the way in which the strong light creates halos around the buds of the flowers.
133 This photograph has been enhanced using an app called Dramatic B+W, and the rays of light have been added using an app simply called Rays. The lines of light, and all the lines of perspective in the shot lead the eye to the woman who is the main subject of the image.
134 In this image the texture in the background compliments the subject of the image, lifting it above the picture plane, as in a Trompe-l'œil oil painting.
135 Most photography apps will have a filter that enhances the detail in an image. This tool can be particularly useful when capturing texture.
The effectiveness of this photo is partly the leering face of the fish, but also the leathery texture that fills the whole frame of the image.
575Tangled in Tangled FX Tangled FX 2.1 (21 Dec 2015, 17:20:07) Cartoon preset